Database management is a system for managing data that supports the company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications, editing it as needed and monitoring changes to data and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It’s a component of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure that supports decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) that allowed the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a wide range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a collection of tables which organize data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of fields, known as attributes, which provide information about the data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most well-known database type in the present. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It is also easier to update data since it doesn’t require the modification of certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability and other operational concerns like the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the way the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a mix of different external views based on different data models. It also can include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to improve the performance.